• Merger Model: Cash, Debt, and Stock Mix

    In this merger model lesson, you'll learn how a company might decide what mix of cash, debt, and stock it might use to fund... By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" ... might use to fund a merger or an acquisition - and you'll understand how to determine the appropriate amount of each one in a deal. 2:24 General Order of Funding for M&A Deals 4:49 Cash - How Much Can You Use? 9:56 Debt - How Much Can You Use? 14:08 Stock - How Much Can You Use? 16:32 Exceptions 18:03 Recap and Summary How Do You Determine the Cash / Stock / Debt Mix in an M&A Deal? Very common interview question, and you also need to know it for what you do on the job. 3 ways to fund a company, and to fund acquisitions of other companies...

    published: 21 Oct 2014
  • What Is A Cash Merger?

    Definition of cash merger where an acquiring firm buys the target firm's stock with cash, instead more common practice exchanging it own definition out buying its a happens when company's. The acquirer can pay cash outright for all the equity shares of target company, paying what is an 'all deal'all mergers and acquisitions occur with no exchange stock; parent company purchases a majority common 7 aug 2017 merger mode payment business acquisition in which used to buy stock acquired firm instead striking about 1990s, however, way they're being deal, roles two parties are clear cut, but deals also be funded combination. In the event of a cash only merger transaction, exchange ratio is not excluding any effects, what actual based on stock mergers and acquisitions (m&a) are complex, involving ...

    published: 10 Oct 2017
  • IRR vs. Cash on Cash Multiples in Leveraged Buyouts and Investments

    In this IRR vs Cash tutorial, you’ll learn the key distinctions between the internal rate of return (IRR). By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" You will also learn further distinctions on the cash-on-cash multiple or money-on multiple when evaluating deals and investments – and you’ll understand why venture capital (VC) firms target one set of numbers, whereas private equity (PE) firms target a different set of numbers. http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/109-05-IRR-vs-Cash-on-Cash-Multiples.xlsx Table of Contents: 1:35 Why Do IRR and Cash-on-Cash Multiples Both Matter? 3:05 What Do Private Equity vs. Venture Capital vs. Other Firms Care About? 8:30 How to Use These Metrics in R...

    published: 05 Aug 2014
  • Merger Model Interview Questions: What to Expect

    You’ll learn about the most common merger model questions in this tutorial, as well as what type of “progression” to expect and the key principles you must understand in order to answer ANY math questions on this topic. Table of Contents: 3:26 Question #1: The Basic Rules 5:23 Question #2: With Real Numbers 8:21 Question #3: Equity Value, Enterprise Value, and Valuation Multiples 12:17 Question #4: Ranges for the Multiples 14:26 Question #5: What if the Buyer is Twice as Big? 16:26 Recap, Summary, and Key Principles Question #1: The Basic Rules "A company with a P / E multiple of 25x acquires another company for a purchase P / E multiple of 15x. Will the deal be accretive or dilutive?" ANSWER: You can’t tell unless it’s a 100% Stock deal. If it is, it will be accretive because th...

    published: 11 Oct 2016
  • Accretion Dilution - Rules of Thumb for Merger Models

    Learn about rules of thumb you can use to determine whether an acquisition will be accretive or dilutive in advance, based on the P/E multiples of the buyer and seller, the % cash, stock, and debt used, and the prevailing interest rates on cash and debt. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" Here's an outline of what we cover in the lesson, and the step-by-step process you can follow to figure this out for yourself: Why Do We Care About Rules of Thumb for M&A Deals / Merger Models? It's a VERY common interview question - "How can you tell whether an M&A deal is accretive or dilutive?" People often believe, incorrectly, that there's no way to tell without building the entire model. But shortcuts always e...

    published: 17 Nov 2013
  • Hedge fund strategies: Merger arbitrage 1 | Finance & Capital Markets | Khan Academy

    Simple case of merger arbitrage when there is an all cash acquisition. Created by Sal Khan. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/core-finance/investment-vehicles-tutorial/investment-consumption/v/risk-and-reward-introduction?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=financeandcapitalmarkets Missed the previous lesson? Watch here: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/core-finance/investment-vehicles-tutorial/hedge-funds/v/hedge-fund-strategies-long-short-2?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=financeandcapitalmarkets Finance and capital markets on Khan Academy: Hedge funds have absolutely nothing to do with shrubbery. Their name comes from the fact that early hedge funds (and some current ones) tried to "hedge" their exposure...

    published: 11 May 2011
  • Simple merger arbitrage with share acquisition | Finance & Capital Markets | Khan Academy

    Showing how a merger arbitrage player might act if they were sure that a transaction would go through. Created by Sal Khan. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/core-finance/stock-and-bonds/leveraged-buy-outs/v/basic-leveraged-buyout-lbo?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=financeandcapitalmarkets Missed the previous lesson? Watch here: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/core-finance/stock-and-bonds/mergers-acquisitions/v/price-behavior-after-announced-acquisition?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=financeandcapitalmarkets Finance and capital markets on Khan Academy: Companies often buy or merge with other companies using shares (which is sometimes less intuitive than when they use cash). This tutorial walks ...

    published: 12 May 2011
  • Episode 119: Introduction to Mergers and Acquisitions

    Go Premium for only $9.99 a year and access exclusive ad-free videos from Alanis Business Academy. Click here for a 14 day free trial: http://bit.ly/1Iervwb View additional videos from Alanis Business Academy and interact with us on our social media pages: YouTube Channel: http://bit.ly/1kkvZoO Website: http://bit.ly/1ccT2QA Facebook: http://on.fb.me/1cpuBhW Twitter: http://bit.ly/1bY2WFA Google+: http://bit.ly/1kX7s6P Companies have a few options for achieving growth. The first is by growing organically through the development of new products and production capacity over time. The other option, is through what are known as mergers and acquisitions. A merger occurs when two companies agree to combine to form an entirely new company. The two companies will agree on a post-merger name, ...

    published: 18 Jul 2013
  • M&A Deal Structure - Common Issues in Mergers & Acquisitions

    M&A Deal Tips #1: Here's a brief description of the three basic types of deal structures for buying and selling a business — a stock purchase transaction, an asset purchase transaction, and a statutory merger transaction — and which is best for buyer and seller. By Massachusetts M&A Attorney Scott Bleier. (http://www.mbbp.com/attorneys/bleier_scott.html) Three alternatives exist for structuring a transaction: (i) stock purchase, (ii) asset sale, and (iii) merger. The acquirer and target have competing legal interests and considerations within each alternative. It is important to recognize and address material issues when negotiating a specific deal structure. Certain primary considerations relating to deal structure are: (i) transferability of liability, (ii) third party contractual cons...

    published: 15 Jun 2015
  • Free Cash Flow: How to Interpret It and Use It In a Valuation

    You'll learn what "Free Cash Flow" (FCF) means, why it's such an important metric when analyzing and valuing companies. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" You'll also learn how to interpret positive vs. negative FCF, and what different numbers over time mean -- using a comparison between Wal-Mart, Amazon, and Salesforce as our example. Table of Contents: 0:54 What Free Cash Flow (FCF) is and Why It's Important 2:26 What Positive FCF Tells You, and What to Do With It 3:56 What Negative FCF Tells You, and What to Do With It 4:38 Why You Exclude Most Investing and Financing Activities in the FCF Calculation 7:55 How to Use and Interpret FCF When Analyzing Companies 11:58 Wal-Mart vs. Amazon vs. Salesf...

    published: 20 May 2014
  • Corporate Valuation in Merger Analysis

    A simple working example

    published: 02 Nov 2015
  • APG Cash Drawer and Cash Bases' customers profit from merger

    Two companies are now one: The integration of APG Cash Drawer and Cash Bases has been taking place over the last six months. Stephen Bergeron, VP Global Marketing at APG/Cash Bases explains how both companies and their consumers profit from the merger.

    published: 24 Feb 2016
  • Expense Synergies in Merger Models

    In this expense synergies lesson, you'll learn why expense synergies matter, what they consist of, how they impact M&A deals. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" You'll also learn and accretion / dilution, and 3 common mistakes that people make when incorporating synergies into models. Table of Contents: 3:45 Example of Expense Synergies (Office Consolidation) 7:57 Oversight #1: More Granular Estimates / Checks 11:37 Oversight #2: It Takes Time to Realize Synergies 14:39 Oversight #3: It Takes Money to Realize Synergies 17:39 How Does All of This Impact the Deal, Accretion / (Dilution), and So On? 18:34 Recap and Summary Why do Synergies matter? And what are they exactly? Put simply, they're cases...

    published: 07 Oct 2014
  • Example of merger - Q1 to Q7 (Covered -practice manual)

    Points covered in this video - 1. How to calculate exchange ratio 2. PRE (before) and post (after) merger Earnings Per Share calculation. 3. What it means - shareholders of company (acquired) are not at loss. 4. Market price post merger. 5. Value of Company after merger 6. Whether shareholders of both the Companies are better off? 7. Equivalent Earnings of Shares of B Ltd.

    published: 09 Apr 2015
  • Car merger

    Subscribe

    published: 11 Apr 2018
  • Price behavior after announced acquisition | Finance & Capital Markets | Khan Academy

    Stock Price Behavior After Announced Acquisition with Shares. Created by Sal Khan. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/core-finance/stock-and-bonds/mergers-acquisitions/v/simple-merger-arb-with-share-acquisition?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=financeandcapitalmarkets Missed the previous lesson? Watch here: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/core-finance/stock-and-bonds/mergers-acquisitions/v/acquisitions-with-shares?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=financeandcapitalmarkets Finance and capital markets on Khan Academy: Companies often buy or merge with other companies using shares (which is sometimes less intuitive than when they use cash). This tutorial walks through the mechanics of how this happens a...

    published: 12 May 2011
  • Chris Cash - Mad About Bars w/ Kenny Allstar [S3.E30] | @MixtapeMadness | @MixtapeMadness

    Prod. Richie Beatz DOWNLOAD OUR APP iOS - https://goo.gl/pUHRn6 Android - http://goo.gl/w8eDyB Subscribe: http://goo.gl/X4L8ea Follow: https://goo.gl/nd8MzE Any mixtape featured on this channel can be downloaded here: http://www.mixtapemadness.com/ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + Stay Updated Soundcloud: https://goo.gl/VgNhPc Twitter: https://goo.gl/nd8MzE Google +: http://goo.gl/Lkfgsr Instagram: https://goo.gl/QC7AZl - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Providing an easier way to listen to the latest mixtapes & singles online. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - COPYRIGHT: If you believe this video breaches your copyright, please direct your DMCA related emails to: info@mixtapemadness.c...

    published: 29 Apr 2018
  • IB Case Studies: 3-Statement Modeling Test

    Get the files and resources here: http://www.mergersandinquisitions.com/3-statement-model-case-study/ http://bit.ly/2rYR0y2 https://samples-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/IBIG-06-01-Three-Statements-30-Minutes-Blank.xlsx https://samples-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/IBIG-06-01-Three-Statements-30-Minutes-Complete.xlsx Table of Contents: 3:34 Step 1: Fill Out All the Assumptions (if possible) 11:34 Step 2: Fill Out the Entire Income Statement 13:49 Step 3: Fill Out What You Can of the Balance Sheet 16:03 Step 4: Fill Out the Entire Cash Flow Statement 20:35 Step 5: Finish Linking the Balance Sheet 23:25 Step 6: Check Your Work and Answer the Questions 24:42 Recap and Summary

    published: 28 Jun 2017
  • National Finance offers 'cash buyout' to Oman Orix shareholders for merger

    Merger Offer National Finance Company has decided to offer cash buyout to the shareholders of Oman Orix Leasing Company as part of the merger deal between the two leading leasing firms. Solar EOR Project The world’s largest solar-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project, Miraah, is expected to begin delivering steam by August this year. Sohar Port Hutchison, which is the container terminal operator at Sohar Port, has launched a new auto gate system at its terminal. Meetaq Islamic Finance Bank Muscat’s Meethaq Islamic financing receivables rose to OMR902 million as of March 31, 2017 compared to OMR665 million for the same period of 2016. Stock Market Share prices on the Muscat Securities Market edged down on selling pressure Website: http://timesofoman.com Facebook: http://face...

    published: 15 May 2017
  • Amalgamation Merger Method 1 Class 4

    published: 21 Apr 2016
  • Why Deferred Tax Liabilities Get Created in an M&A Deal

    Why Do Deferred Tax Liabilities Matter? They're part of any M&A deal. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/biws/ You'll find you always see them in the purchase price allocation schedule, and they impact the combined company's taxes after the deal takes place. You see them all the time, especially for highly acquisitive companies like Oracle. They reflect the fact that there are TIMING differences between when a company records taxes on its publicly filed Income Statement and when it actually pays those taxes. Specifically, when a buyer writes up the seller's PP&E or Other Intangible Assets in a deal, the buyer depreciates or amortizes them over time... but only on the BOOK version of its statements! It can't do that on the TAX version of its statements it files when paying taxes to th...

    published: 18 Mar 2014
  • Merger Model: Assessment Centre Case Study

    In this Merger Model tutorial, you'll learn how to complete a merger model case study exercise given at an assessment center. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" You will also learn how to set up a simplified model, how to calculate accretion / (dilution) under different scenarios, and how to calculate the pro-forma credit stats and ratios for the combined company. http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/108-04-Merger-Model-Assessment-Center-Case-Study.pdf "Before" Excel File: http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/108-04-Merger-Model-AC-Case-Study-Before.xlsx "After" Excel File: http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/108-04-Merger-Model-AC-Case...

    published: 01 Jul 2014
  • WACC, Cost of Equity, and Cost of Debt in a DCF

    In this WACC and Cost of Equity tutorial, you'll learn how changes to assumptions in a DCF impact variables like the Cost of Equity, Cost of Debt. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" You'll also learn about WACC (Weighted Average Cost of Capital) - and why it is not always so straightforward to answer these questions in interviews. Table of Contents: 2:22 Why Everything is Interrelated 4:22 Summary of Factors That Impact a DCF 6:37 Changes to Debt Percentages in the Capital Structure 11:38 The Risk-Free Rate, Equity Risk Premium, and Beta 12:49 The Tax Rate 14:55 Recap and Summary Why Do WACC, the Cost of Equity, and the Cost of Debt Matter? This is a VERY common interview question: "If a compan...

    published: 23 Sep 2014
  • Unlevered Free Cash Flow Calculation in a Discounted Cash Flow Model

    Learn why Unlevered Free Cash Flow is important, how to calculate it, and the difference between Levered and Unlevered FCF. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" You'll see a real-world example of how to calculate it for Steel Dynamics, a steel manufacturer. Here's an outline of what we'll cover in this lesson... 1. Why is Unlevered Free Cash Flow AKA Free Cash Flow to Firm So Important? Measures cash flow generated by core business... On recurring, predictable basis... And it ignores capital structure - i.e. no net interest expense, debt repayments, etc. So it's arguably the best, most "neutral" view of how much cash a company really generates, resulting in use in the DCF. And it's easier to project th...

    published: 03 Dec 2013
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Merger Model: Cash, Debt, and Stock Mix
19:59

Merger Model: Cash, Debt, and Stock Mix

  • Order:
  • Duration: 19:59
  • Updated: 21 Oct 2014
  • views: 24830
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In this merger model lesson, you'll learn how a company might decide what mix of cash, debt, and stock it might use to fund... By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" ... might use to fund a merger or an acquisition - and you'll understand how to determine the appropriate amount of each one in a deal. 2:24 General Order of Funding for M&A Deals 4:49 Cash - How Much Can You Use? 9:56 Debt - How Much Can You Use? 14:08 Stock - How Much Can You Use? 16:32 Exceptions 18:03 Recap and Summary How Do You Determine the Cash / Stock / Debt Mix in an M&A Deal? Very common interview question, and you also need to know it for what you do on the job. 3 ways to fund a company, and to fund acquisitions of other companies: use cash on-hand, borrow the money from other entities (debt), or issue equity (stock) to new investors. But how does a buyer in an M&A deal decide whether it should use… 50% debt and 50% stock vs. 33% debt, 33% stock, and 33% cash vs. 50% cash and 50% debt vs…. And the list goes on. Easiest: Think about the "cost" of each method, start with the cheapest method, use the most of THAT method that you can, and then move to the next cheapest method, and continue like that. GENERALLY: Cheapest: Cash, since interest rates on cash are lower than interest rates on debt, and tend to be low in general. Next Cheapest: Debt, since it is still cheaper than equity and since interest paid on debt is tax-deductible. Most Expensive: Stock, since the Cost of Equity tends to exceed the Cost of Debt… in theory and in practice. To Compare Them: Look at the "After-Tax Yields"… for debt and cash, just take the Interest Rate and multiply by (1 - Buyer's Tax Rate). Stock: Take the buyer's Net Income and divide by its Equity Value (or "flip" its P / E multiple). SO: Always start with cash, use the most you can, then move to debt, use the most you can, and finish up with stock. Cash - How Much is "The Most You Can?" Easy: Company has minimal cash and can't use anything, or it has a huge cash balance and can use all of it. More Common Case: Look at the company's "minimum" cash balance and use the excess cash above that to fund the deal. EX: Company has $500 million in cash right now, but its minimum cash balance to keep operating is $200 million… So it can use $300 million of its cash to fund the deal. How to Determine: Can be tough, but sometimes companies disclose it… ...or you can look back at historical cash balances and make a guesstimate based on that (what was its lowest cash balance in past years?). Debt - How Much Can You Use? So let's say you've now used $300 million of cash to fund the deal… but it's a deal for $1 billion total. How much debt can you use to fund the remainder? $700 million? $300 million? $500 million? Easiest Method: Calculate the key credit stats and ratios for the combined company - for example: Total Debt / EBITDA Net Debt / EBITDA EBITDA / Interest Expense And see what amount of debt makes these look "reasonable", in line with historical figures and also figures for comparable companies. EX: Let's say that if the company uses $500 million of debt, its Debt / EBITDA is 4x. Historically, it has been around 2-3x, and no peer company is levered at more than 3.5x. If that's the case, we'd say that 3.5x - 4.0x is probably the "maximum" (whatever amount of debt that means). Here: We have the Debt / EBITDA and other ratios for the Men's Wearhouse / Jos. A. Bank peer companies. Stock - Now What? Often used as the "method of last resort" because: A) It tends to be the most expensive method for most companies. B) Most acquirers don't like giving up ownership and diluting existing shareholders unless absolutely necessary. So in this example, if we've used $300 million of cash and $500 million of debt, we're still not quite at $1 billion... need an extra $200 million, which we can get by issuing stock. # of Shares = $200 million / Buyer's Share Price. Technically, there's no real "limit," but it would be very odd for a company to give up more than, say, 50% ownership to another company… unless they're very close in size. Exceptions: Buyer has an exceptionally high P / E multiple (Amazon) - stock might be the cheapest! Buyer wants to do a tax-free deal (Google / YouTube) and it's much bigger anyway, so won't make a difference. Companies are similarly sized - stock might always be necessary because cash/debt are implausible (mergers of equals). Summary Which purchase method do you use? MOST relevant when companies are closer in size… doesn't make much difference when the buyer is 100x or 1000x bigger than the seller. Order: 1. Cash - Any excess cash above the company's minimum cash balance. 2. Debt - To the upper range of the Debt / EBITDA of comparables (and other metrics). 3. Stock - For any remaining funding that's required; ideally give up well under 50% ownership.
https://wn.com/Merger_Model_Cash,_Debt,_And_Stock_Mix
What Is A Cash Merger?
0:47

What Is A Cash Merger?

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  • Duration: 0:47
  • Updated: 10 Oct 2017
  • views: 80
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Definition of cash merger where an acquiring firm buys the target firm's stock with cash, instead more common practice exchanging it own definition out buying its a happens when company's. The acquirer can pay cash outright for all the equity shares of target company, paying what is an 'all deal'all mergers and acquisitions occur with no exchange stock; parent company purchases a majority common 7 aug 2017 merger mode payment business acquisition in which used to buy stock acquired firm instead striking about 1990s, however, way they're being deal, roles two parties are clear cut, but deals also be funded combination. In the event of a cash only merger transaction, exchange ratio is not excluding any effects, what actual based on stock mergers and acquisitions (m&a) are complex, involving many partiesairways begin discussions. What is cash merger? Definition and meaning businessdictionary. Cash merger meaning in the cambridge english dictionary. Cash received in mergers fairmark exchange ratio definition, formula and explanation. Capital gains tax share reorganisation, takeover or merger gov. Nov 2014 you must pay capital gains tax on any cash get as part of the takeover work out what proportion total shares (of that class) you're 1 2006 is a merger? The case for taxing mergers like stock salesin merger, neither assets nor in lieu fractional merger or spinoff, and reporting your broker reports could trigger warning flags irs can pick up does reverse mean my stocks? In takeovers, acquiring company agrees to certain dollar amount each share. What is a stock for merger and how does this corporate action all cash deal investopedia. Stock or cash? The trade offs for buyers and sellers in mergers the difference between cash & stock what is a forward merger? What cashout Definition of merger calculating gains. Occurs when the targeted firm's stockholders or shareholders do 8 sep 2015 corporations sometimes create merger transactions that exchange both cash and shares of one stock for a currently held tax rules depend on reason you received. What happens when you hold stock in a company that merges into another one? There are different tax corporate finance, tender offer is type of public takeover bid. In a cash merger, the acquirer uses to buy target company. What is cash merger? Definition and meaning businessdictionary what out the difference between & stock mergers budgeting money. First, let's be clear about what we mean by a stock for merger. How to report cash in lieu on schedule d the motley fool. What is a merger? The case for taxing cash law ecommons. What happens to stocks when companies merge? . The tender offer is a public, cash or securities may be offered to the target company's shareholders, although in which offers david offenberg, christo. What is the difference between all different types of stocks & symbols for same company? a merger formal type acquisition that combines two or more business enterprises were independent into single en
https://wn.com/What_Is_A_Cash_Merger
IRR vs. Cash on Cash Multiples in Leveraged Buyouts and Investments
14:01

IRR vs. Cash on Cash Multiples in Leveraged Buyouts and Investments

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  • Duration: 14:01
  • Updated: 05 Aug 2014
  • views: 25016
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In this IRR vs Cash tutorial, you’ll learn the key distinctions between the internal rate of return (IRR). By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" You will also learn further distinctions on the cash-on-cash multiple or money-on multiple when evaluating deals and investments – and you’ll understand why venture capital (VC) firms target one set of numbers, whereas private equity (PE) firms target a different set of numbers. http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/109-05-IRR-vs-Cash-on-Cash-Multiples.xlsx Table of Contents: 1:35 Why Do IRR and Cash-on-Cash Multiples Both Matter? 3:05 What Do Private Equity vs. Venture Capital vs. Other Firms Care About? 8:30 How to Use These Metrics in Real Life 11:08 Key Takeaways Lesson Outline: 1. Why Does This Matter? Because there are DIFFERENT ways to judge the success of a deal - 2 of the main ones for leveraged buyouts (LBOs), growth equity investments, and venture capital investments are the internal rate of return (IRR) and the cash-on-cash (CoC) or money-on-money (MoM) multiple. Many investment firms will care a lot about one of these, but not the other, and will try to find investments that yield a high IRR or a high multiple… but not both. The Difference: IRR factors in the time value of money - it's the effective, compounded interest rate on an investment. Whereas the multiple is simpler and ignores timing (e.g., $1000 / $100 = 10x multiple). 2. What Do Different Firms Care About? Most venture capital (VC) firms and early-stage investors want to earn a multiple of their money back - they don't care that much about IRR, because they're going to be invested for a VERY LONG time and it's not exactly liquid… and they don't care what the stock market does. VC firms must be able to cover their losses with “the winners”! If they get 2x their capital back in 1 year (100% IRR) and then lose everything on another investment in 5 years’ time (0% IRR), the first result is completely irrelevant because they've only earned back 1x their capital. Perfect Example: Harmonix, maker of Guitar Hero - got VC investment in the mid-1990's, generated $0 in revenue for 5+ years, and then in 2005 released the hit video game Guitar Hero. Sold for $175 million to Viacom in 2006! Massive multiple, but likely a pathetic IRR since it took 10+ years to get there. Later-stage investors and private equity firms care more about IRR because the multiples will never be that high in late-stage deals, and because they are benchmarked against the public markets (e.g., the S&P 500) more. If the firm's IRR can't beat the stock market, why should you invest? Most PE firms target at least a 20-25% IRR depending on the economy, deal environment, valuations, etc… less when things are bad, more in frothy times. This makes it common to do "quick flip" deals where the company is bought and then sold at a MUCH higher multiple right after - simply to get a high IRR. Real-Life Example: Thoma Bravo (mid-market tech PE firm) bought Digital Insight from Intuit for $1.025 billion, and then sold it 4 months later for $1.65 billion to NCR. VERY high IRR - 316%! But only a ~1.6x money multiple, assuming no debt / no debt repayment. http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2013/12/02/sale-to-ncr-is-a-quick-profitable-flip-for-a-private-equity-firm/ 3. How Do You Use These Metrics In Real Life? How to calculate them: see the Atlassian or J.Crew models. IRR is straightforward and uses built-in Excel functions, but for the CoC or MoM multiple, you need to sum up all positive cash flows in the period and divide by the sum of all negative cash flows in that period, and flip the sign. In the case of Atlassian, the deal is great for Accel because they earn a 15x multiple, even though the IRR is "only" 35%... they do not care AT ALL because they are targeting the multiple, not the IRR. For T. Rowe Price, the multiple of 1.9x isn't great, but they do at least get a 14% IRR which is probably what they care about more since they are late-stage investors. For the J. Crew deal, both the IRR and the multiple are very low and below what PE firms typically target, so this deal would be problematic to pursue, at least with these assumptions. 4. Key Takeaways IRR and Cash-on-Cash or Money-on-Money multiples are related, but often move in opposite directions when the time period changes. Different firms target different rates and metrics (VC/early stage - multiples, ideally over 10x or 3-5x later on; PE/late stage - IRR, ideally 20%+). Calculation: IRR is simple, use the built-in IRR or XIRR in Excel; for the multiple, sum the positive returns/cash flows, divide by the negative returns/cash flows and flip the sign. Judging deals: Focus on multiples for earlier stage deals (and if you're pitching VCs to fund your company), and focus on IRR for later stage / growth equity / PE deals.
https://wn.com/Irr_Vs._Cash_On_Cash_Multiples_In_Leveraged_Buyouts_And_Investments
Merger Model Interview Questions: What to Expect
18:39

Merger Model Interview Questions: What to Expect

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  • Duration: 18:39
  • Updated: 11 Oct 2016
  • views: 14068
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You’ll learn about the most common merger model questions in this tutorial, as well as what type of “progression” to expect and the key principles you must understand in order to answer ANY math questions on this topic. Table of Contents: 3:26 Question #1: The Basic Rules 5:23 Question #2: With Real Numbers 8:21 Question #3: Equity Value, Enterprise Value, and Valuation Multiples 12:17 Question #4: Ranges for the Multiples 14:26 Question #5: What if the Buyer is Twice as Big? 16:26 Recap, Summary, and Key Principles Question #1: The Basic Rules "A company with a P / E multiple of 25x acquires another company for a purchase P / E multiple of 15x. Will the deal be accretive or dilutive?" ANSWER: You can’t tell unless it’s a 100% Stock deal. If it is, it will be accretive because the Cost of Acquisition is 1 / 25, or 4%, and the Seller’s Yield is 1 / 15, or 6.7%. Since the Seller’s Yield is higher, it will be accretive. For Cash and Debt deals, or deals with a mix of all three, you’d calculate the Weighted Cost of Acquisition by using Foregone Interest Rate on Cash * (1 – Buyer’s Tax Rate) * % Cash + Interest Rate on Debt * (1 – Buyer’s Tax Rate) * % Debt + 1 / (Buyer’s P / E Multiple) * % Stock and compare that to the Seller’s Yield. Question #2: With Real Numbers “Let’s say it is a 100% Stock deal. The Buyer has 10 shares at a share price of $25.00, and its Net Income is $10. It acquires the Seller for a Purchase Equity Value of $150. The Seller has a Net Income of $10 as well. Assume the same tax rates for both companies. How accretive is this deal?” ANSWER: The buyer’s EPS is $10 / 10 = $1.00. It must issue 6 additional shares to do the deal, so the Combined Share Count is 10 + 6 = 16. Since both companies have the same tax rate and since no Cash or Debt is used, Combined Net Income = $10 + $10 = $20, and Combined EPS = $20 / 16 = $1.25, so the deal is 25% accretive. Question #3: Equity Value, Enterprise Value, and Valuation Multiples “What are the Combined Equity Value and Enterprise Value in this same deal? Assume that Equity Value = Enterprise Value for both the Buyer and Seller.” ANSWER: Combined Equity Value = Buyer’s Equity Value + Value of Stock Issued in the Deal = $250 + $150 = $400. Combined Enterprise Value = Buyer’s Enterprise Value + Purchase Enterprise Value of Seller = $250 + $150 = $400. The Combined EV / EBITDA multiple won’t be affected by the mix of Cash, Stock, and Debt, but the P / E multiple will be. It’s 20x here ($400 / $20), but it will change for non-100%-Stock deals. Question #4: Ranges for the Multiples “Without doing any math, what ranges would you expect for the Combined EV / EBITDA and P / E multiples, and why?” ANSWER: They should be somewhere in between the Buyer’s multiples and the Seller’s purchase multiples. It’s almost never a simple average because of the relative sizes of the Buyer and Seller – and for P / E, the purchase method also plays a role. Question #5: What if the Buyer is Twice as Big? "What happens if the Buyer is twice as big, i.e. it has an Equity Value of $500 and Net Income of $20?" ANSWER: The deal becomes *less* accretive because the company making it accretive, the Seller, now has a lower weighting. The Buyer was previously $250 / $400 of the total, but is now only $500 / $650, which is ~63% vs. ~77%, so we’d expect accretion to fall by 10-15%, which it does. The Combined Multiples will all be closer to the Buyer’s multiples now as well. Recap, Summary, and Key Principles Principle #1: If the Seller’s Yield is above the Weighted Cost of Acquisition, it’s accretive; dilutive if the opposite. Principle #2: Combined Equity Value = Buyer’s Equity Value + Value of Stock Issued in the Deal. Principle #3: Combined Enterprise Value = Buyer’s Enterprise Value + Purchase Enterprise Value of Seller. Principle #4: The Combined P / E Multiple is affected by the Cash / Debt / Stock mix, but the Combined EV / EBITDA Multiple is not. Principle #5: The Combined Multiples will be in between the Buyer’s multiples and the Seller’s purchase multiples – exact numbers depend on sizes of the Buyer and Seller. RESOURCES: https://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/108-11-Merger-Model-Interview-Questions-Slides.pdf https://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/108-11-Merger-Model-Interview-Questions.xlsx
https://wn.com/Merger_Model_Interview_Questions_What_To_Expect
Accretion Dilution - Rules of Thumb for Merger Models
13:25

Accretion Dilution - Rules of Thumb for Merger Models

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  • Duration: 13:25
  • Updated: 17 Nov 2013
  • views: 50727
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Learn about rules of thumb you can use to determine whether an acquisition will be accretive or dilutive in advance, based on the P/E multiples of the buyer and seller, the % cash, stock, and debt used, and the prevailing interest rates on cash and debt. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" Here's an outline of what we cover in the lesson, and the step-by-step process you can follow to figure this out for yourself: Why Do We Care About Rules of Thumb for M&A Deals / Merger Models? It's a VERY common interview question - "How can you tell whether an M&A deal is accretive or dilutive?" People often believe, incorrectly, that there's no way to tell without building the entire model. But shortcuts always exist! Plus, this shortcut is very useful in real life. You can use it to "sanity check" your model, approximate the impact of a deal in advance, and so on. So it's a time-saver *and* a good way to check your work. Rules of Thumb for Merger Models AKA Accretion / Dilution Models: CONCEPT: An M&A deal is accretive if the combined company's EPS (Earnings Per Share) is higher than the buyer's standalone EPS prior to the transaction. It's dilutive if the combined EPS is lower, and it's neutral if the EPS is the same afterward. The outcome depends on price paid for the seller, the method of payment (cash, stock, or debt), the interest rate on debt and cash, and the buyer's P/E multiple, among other factors. In real life, it's very difficult to tell with high precision whether the deal will be accretive or dilutive without running the whole model - due to added costs, synergies, write-ups, timing differences, the cumulative impact of additional interest on debt and foregone interest on cash, etc... BUT you can approximate the impact with a simple rule of thumb: 1. Calculate the Weighted "Cost" of Acquisition for the Buyer... 2. And compare it to the Seller's "Yield" AT its purchase price. (i.e. Seller's Net Income / Equity Purchase Price) This step is essential - if the seller is currently valued at $900 million and the buyer pays $1 billion for the seller, you NEED to use the $1 billion actually paid for the seller or these yields won't be correct. 3. If the Seller's "Yield" is higher, it's accretive - otherwise, if it's lower, it's dilutive... Think of it as the buyer getting MORE *from* the seller than what it's paying for the seller, vs. getting LESS than what it's paying. 4. How do you calculate the Weighted "Cost" of Acquisition? You need to calculate the after-tax "cost" of each component, since Net Income is also after-tax. After-Tax Cost of Cash = Foregone Cash Interest Rate * (1 - Buyer's Tax Rate) After-Tax Cost of Debt = Interest Rate on Debt * (1 - Buyer's Tax Rate) After-Tax Cost of Issuing Stock = 1 / Buyer's P/E Multiple (i.e. take the reciprocal of the buyer's P/E multiple) That last one is effectively the buyer's "after-tax yield"... For example, if you buy 1 share of the buyer's stock, it's the Net Income you'd be entitled to with that 1 share... So in this example, 1 / Buyer's P/E Multiple = 1 / 11.3 x = 8.9%. That means that for each $1.00 of United stock you buy, you get $0.089 in Net Income. Finally, you calculate the Weighted Average Itself with this formula: Weighted Average Cost of Acquisition = Cost of Cash * % Cash Used + Cost of Stock * % Stock Used + Cost of Debt * % Debt Used And if this weighted average cost of acquisition is greater than the seller's yield, it's dilutive - otherwise, if the weighted average cost of acquisition is lower than the seller's yield, it's accretive. LIMITATIONS: This trick doesn't hold up if the tax rates for the buyer and seller are different, especially if they're VERY different. This also doesn't work if you also factor in write-ups / write-downs, synergies, the cumulative impact of interest paid on debt and foregone interest on cash, merger closing costs, integration costs, etc... And it also doesn't work if the acquisition closes mid-year or in between fiscal years - you need to adjust for that with stub periods and the calendarization of financials... But this is a common interview question, so who cares! It's still very useful to know, and will save you a lot of time in interviews and on the job.
https://wn.com/Accretion_Dilution_Rules_Of_Thumb_For_Merger_Models
Hedge fund strategies: Merger arbitrage 1 | Finance & Capital Markets | Khan Academy
5:02

Hedge fund strategies: Merger arbitrage 1 | Finance & Capital Markets | Khan Academy

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  • Duration: 5:02
  • Updated: 11 May 2011
  • views: 98457
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Simple case of merger arbitrage when there is an all cash acquisition. Created by Sal Khan. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/core-finance/investment-vehicles-tutorial/investment-consumption/v/risk-and-reward-introduction?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=financeandcapitalmarkets Missed the previous lesson? Watch here: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/core-finance/investment-vehicles-tutorial/hedge-funds/v/hedge-fund-strategies-long-short-2?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=financeandcapitalmarkets Finance and capital markets on Khan Academy: Hedge funds have absolutely nothing to do with shrubbery. Their name comes from the fact that early hedge funds (and some current ones) tried to "hedge" their exposure to the market (so they could, in theory, do well in an "up" or "down" market as long as they were good at picking the good companies). Today, hedge funds represent a huge class investment funds. They are far less regulated than, say, mutual funds. In exchange for this, they aren't allowed to market or take investments from "unsophisticated" investors. Some use their flexibility to mitigate risk, other use it to amplify it. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Finance and Capital Markets channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQ1Rt02HirUvBK2D2-ZO_2g?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
https://wn.com/Hedge_Fund_Strategies_Merger_Arbitrage_1_|_Finance_Capital_Markets_|_Khan_Academy
Simple merger arbitrage with share acquisition | Finance & Capital Markets | Khan Academy
4:22

Simple merger arbitrage with share acquisition | Finance & Capital Markets | Khan Academy

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  • Duration: 4:22
  • Updated: 12 May 2011
  • views: 47031
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Showing how a merger arbitrage player might act if they were sure that a transaction would go through. Created by Sal Khan. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/core-finance/stock-and-bonds/leveraged-buy-outs/v/basic-leveraged-buyout-lbo?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=financeandcapitalmarkets Missed the previous lesson? Watch here: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/core-finance/stock-and-bonds/mergers-acquisitions/v/price-behavior-after-announced-acquisition?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=financeandcapitalmarkets Finance and capital markets on Khan Academy: Companies often buy or merge with other companies using shares (which is sometimes less intuitive than when they use cash). This tutorial walks through the mechanics of how this happens and details what is likely to happen in the public markets because of the transaction (including opportunities for arbitrage). About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Finance and Capital Markets channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQ1Rt02HirUvBK2D2-ZO_2g?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
https://wn.com/Simple_Merger_Arbitrage_With_Share_Acquisition_|_Finance_Capital_Markets_|_Khan_Academy
Episode 119: Introduction to Mergers and Acquisitions
4:31

Episode 119: Introduction to Mergers and Acquisitions

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  • Duration: 4:31
  • Updated: 18 Jul 2013
  • views: 31201
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Go Premium for only $9.99 a year and access exclusive ad-free videos from Alanis Business Academy. Click here for a 14 day free trial: http://bit.ly/1Iervwb View additional videos from Alanis Business Academy and interact with us on our social media pages: YouTube Channel: http://bit.ly/1kkvZoO Website: http://bit.ly/1ccT2QA Facebook: http://on.fb.me/1cpuBhW Twitter: http://bit.ly/1bY2WFA Google+: http://bit.ly/1kX7s6P Companies have a few options for achieving growth. The first is by growing organically through the development of new products and production capacity over time. The other option, is through what are known as mergers and acquisitions. A merger occurs when two companies agree to combine to form an entirely new company. The two companies will agree on a post-merger name, like Exxon and Mobil combining to form ExxonMobil, and determine how to structure the new organization as well as staff operations. An acquisition occurs when one company purchases another company. The company that is purchased is then absorbed by the purchasing company and ceases to exist on its own. In some situations a company will purchase another, but allow it to operate independently and even keep its original name, such as when Disney purchased Pixar in 2006. This can be to ease the uncertainty associated with an acquisition as well as ensure the acquired company continues operations smoothly. In the case of Disney and Pixar, Pixar had proven to be successful prior to the acquisition and both companies wanted that success to continue unhindered by a new culture and even new staff. When classifying mergers and acquisitions we can label them as either horizontal or vertical. A horizontal merger or acquisition occurs when the two companies generally produce the same products and serve similar customers. The rationale behind such a merger is the newly merged company will be able to better compete in their respective industry by taking advantage of economies of scale and even technological innovation. It's also worth noting that horizontal acquisitions and mergers can allow companies to expand their product mix and potentially increase revenues by appealing to a wider customer base. Office Depot and Office Max, two retailers who sell similar products and serve similar customers, are currently in the process of completing a merger. This merger is meant to allow these companies the opportunity to compete more effectively against Internet retail giant Amazon. The joining of Office Depot and Office Max is an example of a horizontal merger. In 2012, Facebook acquired popular photo-sharing application Instagram for $1 billion in cash and stock. In addition to giving Facebook access to Instagram's successful mobile platform, it also eliminated a potential competitor while giving Facebook access to an additional group of customers. Facebook's acquisition of Instagram is an example of a horizontal acquisition since they both operate in a similar industry, providing a similar product to similar customers. Now a vertical merger or acquisition occurs when the two companies operate at different stages of the production cycle. Because these companies operate at different stages of the production cycle, the merger or acquisition can create increased operating efficiencies and reduce costs. For example, Google purchased Motorola Mobility in 2012 for $12.5 billion. Motorola Mobility is of course the manufacturer of handset devices while Google was beginning to producing and licensing its Android Operating System. In an effort to control both the hardware and software side of selling smartphones, Google acquired Motorola Mobility. This vertical acquisition allowed Google the opportunity to leverage Motorola Mobility's knowledge of the handset market as well as its staff and operations as opposed to starting from scratch or continuing to rely entirely on other companies for handsets. Coffee giant Starbucks also used a vertical acquisition to expand its offering of pastries and breads by purchasing San Francisco-based Bay Bread LLC, and its La Boulange bakery brand for $100 million in cash in April of this year. Although Starbucks had already sold pastries, this acquisition gave Starbucks control over a key player in the production cycle: the producer. Instead of purchasing pastries and other baked products from another business in the supply chain, Starbucks is now able to produce them in-house reducing its costs in the process. To subscribe to Alanis Business Academy for access to additional business content select the following link: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=mattalanis To access the Alanis Business Academy Youtube channel select the following link: http://www.youtube.com/user/mattalanis
https://wn.com/Episode_119_Introduction_To_Mergers_And_Acquisitions
M&A Deal Structure - Common Issues in Mergers & Acquisitions
4:45

M&A Deal Structure - Common Issues in Mergers & Acquisitions

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  • Duration: 4:45
  • Updated: 15 Jun 2015
  • views: 17926
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M&A Deal Tips #1: Here's a brief description of the three basic types of deal structures for buying and selling a business — a stock purchase transaction, an asset purchase transaction, and a statutory merger transaction — and which is best for buyer and seller. By Massachusetts M&A Attorney Scott Bleier. (http://www.mbbp.com/attorneys/bleier_scott.html) Three alternatives exist for structuring a transaction: (i) stock purchase, (ii) asset sale, and (iii) merger. The acquirer and target have competing legal interests and considerations within each alternative. It is important to recognize and address material issues when negotiating a specific deal structure. Certain primary considerations relating to deal structure are: (i) transferability of liability, (ii) third party contractual consent requirements, (iii) stockholder approval, and (iv) tax consequences. For more resources on M&A transactions, please see: Mergers & Acquisitions Practice http://mbbp.com/practices/mergers-acquisitions See also: Top Ten Issues in M&A Transactions http://mbbp.com/news/issues-in-ma-transactions
https://wn.com/M_A_Deal_Structure_Common_Issues_In_Mergers_Acquisitions
Free Cash Flow: How to Interpret It and Use It In a Valuation
21:50

Free Cash Flow: How to Interpret It and Use It In a Valuation

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  • Duration: 21:50
  • Updated: 20 May 2014
  • views: 107013
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You'll learn what "Free Cash Flow" (FCF) means, why it's such an important metric when analyzing and valuing companies. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" You'll also learn how to interpret positive vs. negative FCF, and what different numbers over time mean -- using a comparison between Wal-Mart, Amazon, and Salesforce as our example. Table of Contents: 0:54 What Free Cash Flow (FCF) is and Why It's Important 2:26 What Positive FCF Tells You, and What to Do With It 3:56 What Negative FCF Tells You, and What to Do With It 4:38 Why You Exclude Most Investing and Financing Activities in the FCF Calculation 7:55 How to Use and Interpret FCF When Analyzing Companies 11:58 Wal-Mart vs. Amazon vs. Salesforce: Free Cash Flow Across Sectors 19:33 Recap and Summary What is Free Cash Flow? Normally it's defined as Cash Flow from Operations minus Capital Expenditures. Tells you the company's DISCRETIONARY cash flow - after paying for expenses and working capital requirements like inventory and capital expenditures, how much cash flow can it put to use for other purposes? If the company generates a lot of Free Cash Flow, it has many options: hire more employees, spend more on working capital, invest in CapEx, invest in other securities, repay debt, issue dividends or repurchase shares, or even acquire other companies. If FCF is negative, you need to dig in and see if it's a one-time issue or recurring problem, and then figure out why: Are sales declining? Are expenses too high? Is the company spending too much on CapEx? If FCF is consistently negative, the company might have to raise debt or equity eventually, or it might have to restructure itself or cut costs in some other way. Why Do You Exclude Most Investing and Financing Activities Other Than CapEx? Because all other activities are, for the most part, "optional" and non-recurring. A normal company does not NEED to buy stocks or issue dividends or repurchase shares... those are all optional uses of cash. All it NEEDS to do to keep its business running is sell products to customers, pay for expenses, and keep investing in longer-term assets such as buildings and equipment (PP&E). Debt repayment and interest expense are "borderline" because some variations of Free Cash Flow will include them, others will exclude them, and some will include interest expense but not debt principal repayment. How Do You Use Free Cash Flow? It's used in a DCF (or at least, a variation of it) to value a company; it's also used in a leveraged buyout (LBO) model to determine how much debt a company can repay. And you can calculate it on a standalone basis for use when comparing different companies. The key is to DIG IN and see why Free Cash Flow is changing the way it is - Organic sales growth? Artificial cost-cutting? Accounting gimmicks? Different working capital policies? IDEALLY, FCF will be increasing because of higher units sales and/or higher market share, and/or higher margins due to economies of scale. Less Good: FCF is growing due to cost-cutting, CapEx slashing, or FCF is growing in spite of falling sales and profits... because of a company playing games with Working Capital, non-core activities, or CapEx spending. Wal-Mart vs. Amazon vs. Salesforce Comparison Main takeaway here is that Wal-Mart's FCF is all over the place, but Cash Flow from Operations is MOSTLY growing, so that appears to be driven by the also growing organic sales. The company is doing some odd things with CapEx and Working Capital, which led to fluctuations in FCF - not exactly "bad" or "good," just neutral and requires more research. With Amazon, they've increased CapEx spending massively in the past 2 years so that has pushed down CapEx. CFO is growing, driven by organic revenue growth (no "games" with Working Capital), but it's very difficult to assess whether all that CapEx spending will pay off in the long-term. With Salesforce, FCF is definitely growing organically (Revenue growth leads directly to CFO growth, and CapEx varies a bit but not as much as with Amazon), but the company is also spending a ton on acquisitions... will it continue? If CapEx as a % of revenue stays low, it will most likely continue to spend on acquisitions - unlikely to issue dividends, repurchase shares, etc. since it's a growth company. Further Resources http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/105-10-Free-Cash-Flow.xlsx http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/105-10-Walmart-Financial-Statements.pdf http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/105-10-Amazon-Financial-Statements.pdf http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/105-10-Salesforce-Financial-Statements.pdf
https://wn.com/Free_Cash_Flow_How_To_Interpret_It_And_Use_It_In_A_Valuation
Corporate Valuation in Merger Analysis
12:01

Corporate Valuation in Merger Analysis

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  • Duration: 12:01
  • Updated: 02 Nov 2015
  • views: 3726
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A simple working example
https://wn.com/Corporate_Valuation_In_Merger_Analysis
APG Cash Drawer and Cash Bases' customers profit from merger
3:34

APG Cash Drawer and Cash Bases' customers profit from merger

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  • Duration: 3:34
  • Updated: 24 Feb 2016
  • views: 307
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Two companies are now one: The integration of APG Cash Drawer and Cash Bases has been taking place over the last six months. Stephen Bergeron, VP Global Marketing at APG/Cash Bases explains how both companies and their consumers profit from the merger.
https://wn.com/Apg_Cash_Drawer_And_Cash_Bases'_Customers_Profit_From_Merger
Expense Synergies in Merger Models
20:32

Expense Synergies in Merger Models

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  • Duration: 20:32
  • Updated: 07 Oct 2014
  • views: 9756
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In this expense synergies lesson, you'll learn why expense synergies matter, what they consist of, how they impact M&A deals. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" You'll also learn and accretion / dilution, and 3 common mistakes that people make when incorporating synergies into models. Table of Contents: 3:45 Example of Expense Synergies (Office Consolidation) 7:57 Oversight #1: More Granular Estimates / Checks 11:37 Oversight #2: It Takes Time to Realize Synergies 14:39 Oversight #3: It Takes Money to Realize Synergies 17:39 How Does All of This Impact the Deal, Accretion / (Dilution), and So On? 18:34 Recap and Summary Why do Synergies matter? And what are they exactly? Put simply, they're cases where 1 + 1 = 3 in mergers and acquisitions. You combine 2 companies, and get MORE revenue than just the Buyer's revenue plus the Seller's revenue…or you get LESS in expenses than just the Buyer's expenses plus the Seller's expenses. Revenue Synergies are tough to estimate and are very error-prone… but sometimes they matter and can be calculated more precisely. Expense Synergies are more grounded in reality, because you look at what both companies are spending and decide what can be cut - at the very least, it's based on actual expenses incurred by both companies. Synergies matter because some deals require synergies to look good on paper (i.e., be accretive). And some deals are motivated primarily by synergies, such as this one with 2 very similar men's retailers merging. BUT… a lot of people get it wrong in 3 main areas when it comes to expense synergies in merger models: Oversight #1: More Granular Estimates / Checks Lots of models - even very complex ones - will just say something like, "$100 million in synergies per year!" This is NOT ideal. It's better to break out the synergies by specific functional areas, if not by specific employee counts, building rents, anticipated discounts on inventory purchases, and so on. In real life, as a banker, you don't really know enough to do this - need the input of both companies' CFOs and finance departments to make estimates. Oversight #2: It Takes Time to Realize Synergies No matter how evil the combined company is, it can't just take the "Death Star" approach and blow up entire divisions / buildings all at once… it takes time to realize synergies, even if you're simply laying off employees. And something like consolidating buildings or inventory purchases / processes takes even more time. Here: The company makes it easy in their investor presentation, since they give us the expected amounts that will be realized each year. Oversight #3: It Takes Money to Realize Synergies It's not just "free" to consolidate buildings or factories or shuffle people around… there are costs associated with all of that. Often labeled "Restructuring Costs" or "Integration Costs" or similar names. Could show up on the Income Statement or on the Cash Flow Statement or both… depends on the deal and the type of expenses. Here: The company makes it easy for us with its estimate of $100 million in Integration Costs "over the next 18 months" - so we allocate that over the first 2 years of the model. How Does All of This Impact the Deal, Accretion / (Dilution), and So On? If you factor in the time and money required, it always makes the deal less accretive or more dilutive… because it pushes the Combined Pre-Tax Income lower in earlier years due to: a) Some percentage less than 100% of synergies will be there; and b) CFS expenses will push down the company's debt repayment ability, thereby increasing interest expense from debt in the earlier years. Extra Resources http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/108-05-Mens-Wearhouse-Jos-A-Bank-Deal-Investor-Presentation.pdf
https://wn.com/Expense_Synergies_In_Merger_Models
Example of merger - Q1 to Q7  (Covered -practice manual)
9:11

Example of merger - Q1 to Q7 (Covered -practice manual)

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  • Duration: 9:11
  • Updated: 09 Apr 2015
  • views: 8899
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Points covered in this video - 1. How to calculate exchange ratio 2. PRE (before) and post (after) merger Earnings Per Share calculation. 3. What it means - shareholders of company (acquired) are not at loss. 4. Market price post merger. 5. Value of Company after merger 6. Whether shareholders of both the Companies are better off? 7. Equivalent Earnings of Shares of B Ltd.
https://wn.com/Example_Of_Merger_Q1_To_Q7_(Covered_Practice_Manual)
Car merger
6:48

Car merger

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  • Duration: 6:48
  • Updated: 11 Apr 2018
  • views: 5
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Subscribe
https://wn.com/Car_Merger
Price behavior after announced acquisition | Finance & Capital Markets | Khan Academy
4:04

Price behavior after announced acquisition | Finance & Capital Markets | Khan Academy

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  • Duration: 4:04
  • Updated: 12 May 2011
  • views: 52287
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Stock Price Behavior After Announced Acquisition with Shares. Created by Sal Khan. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/core-finance/stock-and-bonds/mergers-acquisitions/v/simple-merger-arb-with-share-acquisition?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=financeandcapitalmarkets Missed the previous lesson? Watch here: https://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/core-finance/stock-and-bonds/mergers-acquisitions/v/acquisitions-with-shares?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=financeandcapitalmarkets Finance and capital markets on Khan Academy: Companies often buy or merge with other companies using shares (which is sometimes less intuitive than when they use cash). This tutorial walks through the mechanics of how this happens and details what is likely to happen in the public markets because of the transaction (including opportunities for arbitrage). About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Finance and Capital Markets channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQ1Rt02HirUvBK2D2-ZO_2g?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
https://wn.com/Price_Behavior_After_Announced_Acquisition_|_Finance_Capital_Markets_|_Khan_Academy
Chris Cash - Mad About Bars w/ Kenny Allstar [S3.E30] | @MixtapeMadness | @MixtapeMadness
2:52

Chris Cash - Mad About Bars w/ Kenny Allstar [S3.E30] | @MixtapeMadness | @MixtapeMadness

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  • Duration: 2:52
  • Updated: 29 Apr 2018
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Prod. Richie Beatz DOWNLOAD OUR APP iOS - https://goo.gl/pUHRn6 Android - http://goo.gl/w8eDyB Subscribe: http://goo.gl/X4L8ea Follow: https://goo.gl/nd8MzE Any mixtape featured on this channel can be downloaded here: http://www.mixtapemadness.com/ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + Stay Updated Soundcloud: https://goo.gl/VgNhPc Twitter: https://goo.gl/nd8MzE Google +: http://goo.gl/Lkfgsr Instagram: https://goo.gl/QC7AZl - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Providing an easier way to listen to the latest mixtapes & singles online. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - COPYRIGHT: If you believe this video breaches your copyright, please direct your DMCA related emails to: info@mixtapemadness.com
https://wn.com/Chris_Cash_Mad_About_Bars_W_Kenny_Allstar_S3.E30_|_Mixtapemadness_|_Mixtapemadness
IB Case Studies: 3-Statement Modeling Test
26:06

IB Case Studies: 3-Statement Modeling Test

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  • Duration: 26:06
  • Updated: 28 Jun 2017
  • views: 16718
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Get the files and resources here: http://www.mergersandinquisitions.com/3-statement-model-case-study/ http://bit.ly/2rYR0y2 https://samples-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/IBIG-06-01-Three-Statements-30-Minutes-Blank.xlsx https://samples-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/IBIG-06-01-Three-Statements-30-Minutes-Complete.xlsx Table of Contents: 3:34 Step 1: Fill Out All the Assumptions (if possible) 11:34 Step 2: Fill Out the Entire Income Statement 13:49 Step 3: Fill Out What You Can of the Balance Sheet 16:03 Step 4: Fill Out the Entire Cash Flow Statement 20:35 Step 5: Finish Linking the Balance Sheet 23:25 Step 6: Check Your Work and Answer the Questions 24:42 Recap and Summary
https://wn.com/Ib_Case_Studies_3_Statement_Modeling_Test
National Finance offers 'cash buyout' to Oman Orix shareholders for merger
1:01

National Finance offers 'cash buyout' to Oman Orix shareholders for merger

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  • Duration: 1:01
  • Updated: 15 May 2017
  • views: 74
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Merger Offer National Finance Company has decided to offer cash buyout to the shareholders of Oman Orix Leasing Company as part of the merger deal between the two leading leasing firms. Solar EOR Project The world’s largest solar-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project, Miraah, is expected to begin delivering steam by August this year. Sohar Port Hutchison, which is the container terminal operator at Sohar Port, has launched a new auto gate system at its terminal. Meetaq Islamic Finance Bank Muscat’s Meethaq Islamic financing receivables rose to OMR902 million as of March 31, 2017 compared to OMR665 million for the same period of 2016. Stock Market Share prices on the Muscat Securities Market edged down on selling pressure Website: http://timesofoman.com Facebook: http://facebook.com/timesofoman Twitter: http://twitter.com/timesofoman
https://wn.com/National_Finance_Offers_'Cash_Buyout'_To_Oman_Orix_Shareholders_For_Merger
Amalgamation Merger Method 1 Class 4
52:14

Amalgamation Merger Method 1 Class 4

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  • Duration: 52:14
  • Updated: 21 Apr 2016
  • views: 51786
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https://wn.com/Amalgamation_Merger_Method_1_Class_4
Why Deferred Tax Liabilities Get Created in an M&A Deal
13:24

Why Deferred Tax Liabilities Get Created in an M&A Deal

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  • Duration: 13:24
  • Updated: 18 Mar 2014
  • views: 15953
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Why Do Deferred Tax Liabilities Matter? They're part of any M&A deal. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/biws/ You'll find you always see them in the purchase price allocation schedule, and they impact the combined company's taxes after the deal takes place. You see them all the time, especially for highly acquisitive companies like Oracle. They reflect the fact that there are TIMING differences between when a company records taxes on its publicly filed Income Statement and when it actually pays those taxes. Specifically, when a buyer writes up the seller's PP&E or Other Intangible Assets in a deal, the buyer depreciates or amortizes them over time... but only on the BOOK version of its statements! It can't do that on the TAX version of its statements it files when paying taxes to the government, which means that the actual amount of cash taxes it pays will be different from what's on its Income Statement. Here's the Easiest Way to Think About DTLs: Instead of thinking about the company's historical situation or its taxable income, think about its FUTURE TAXES. If future cash taxes exceed future book taxes, a DTL will be created. We need to pay ADDITIONAL taxes for items that are not truly tax-deductible. If future cash taxes are less than future book taxes, a DTA will be created. We will pay LESS in taxes than the company's book Income Statement implies. As the book and cash tax payments equalize over time, the DTL or DTA goes away. Two Most Common Questions on DTLs: "Wait a minute - why does a DTL get created immediately? Isn't it caused by the book and cash taxes being different many times historically?" Nope, not necessarily - that CAN be a cause, but DTLs/DTAs can also be created by events that change the company's FUTURE tax situation. So you need to think about how taxes will change in the future, not how they've changed in the past, to determine this. "Wait a minute, the taxable income for book purposes is LOWER than it is for tax purposes - doesn't that create a Deferred Tax ASSET (DTA) instead?" Nope. The relevant question is not how the taxable income differs, but how the FUTURE TAXES will differ. If the company will pay more in cash taxes than book taxes in the FUTURE, as a result of these write-ups, or any other changes, then a DTL gets created.
https://wn.com/Why_Deferred_Tax_Liabilities_Get_Created_In_An_M_A_Deal
Merger Model: Assessment Centre Case Study
24:15

Merger Model: Assessment Centre Case Study

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  • Duration: 24:15
  • Updated: 01 Jul 2014
  • views: 28294
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In this Merger Model tutorial, you'll learn how to complete a merger model case study exercise given at an assessment center. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" You will also learn how to set up a simplified model, how to calculate accretion / (dilution) under different scenarios, and how to calculate the pro-forma credit stats and ratios for the combined company. http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/108-04-Merger-Model-Assessment-Center-Case-Study.pdf "Before" Excel File: http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/108-04-Merger-Model-AC-Case-Study-Before.xlsx "After" Excel File: http://youtube-breakingintowallstreet-com.s3.amazonaws.com/108-04-Merger-Model-AC-Case-Study-After.xlsx Table of Contents: 3:01 How to Interpret the Case Study and Model Requirements 5:18 Financial Information for Companies A and B 5:31 How to Calculate the Missing Information 8:02 Entering the Key Deal Assumptions 10:55 How to Combine the Income Statements 14:36 How to Calculate Accretion / (Dilution) and Credit Stats 16:46 Answering the Case Study Questions 21:06 Key Takeaways from the Case Study 22:39 Recap and Summary Step 1: Read and interpret the instructions... and understand where to cut corners! Requirements: Need to be able to change the purchase price and % debt and stock used... but cash and the foregone interest on cash are unnecessary, which simplifies things. Also, they've given us incomplete information in a few spots and we need to go through and calculate some figures for Company A and Company B, such as the shares outstanding. SKIP the formatting! Step 2: Enter the financial information for Company A and Company B. Fairly straightforward, but remember that we need to calculate a few additional numbers for this to work, such as the shares outstanding for each company and the Net Income and EPS, at least for the buyer. Step 3: Calculate the "missing information" - Net Income, EPS, and Share Counts. Start with Pre-Tax Income, then calculate Net Income based on the tax rates for both companies, and then EPS... not completely necessary for Company B, but definitely need it for Company A. Then, calculate the Share Count for both companies and the Enterprise Value (just for reference). Step 4: Go up to the top and enter the key assumptions, starting with Question #1. To save time, skip the (1 + Premium) * Share Price * # Shares calculation and just calculate the purchase price based on the premium to Company B's Market Cap instead -- same result either way. Calculate %s for debt and stock, then the amount of debt raised, debt interest rate, and shares issued. Then, fill in the information about the synergies -- no information on expenses here, so we leave it out. Step 5: Combine the Income Statements for Company A and Company B. Start with the Synergies, and then combine all the other line items, factoring in those synergies on top. Remember to factor in acquisition effects, such as additional interest expense. Calculate down to EPS, making sure you include the NEW shares issued in the transaction and increase Company A's share count as appropriate. Step 6: Calculate Accretion / (Dilution) and the Pro-Forma Credit Stats. Take the combined company's EPS and divide by the buyer's EPS and subtract 1. For the credit stats, the two key ones are the Leverage Ratio (Net Debt / EBITDA here) and the Coverage Ratio (EBITDA / Interest) - so calculate those each year. Step 7: Create sensitivities... if you have time. Here, we would argue it's pointless since it takes more time and effort to set them up, and they don't save much time beyond the model we already have -- so we're skipping this step. Step 8: What is the POINT of this case study exercise? Takeaway #1: Even if we pay a higher premium for a seller, the deal might be MORE accretive depending on the purchase method... debt tends to be less expensive than stock. Takeaway #2: Company B is a very cheap asset -- MUCH lower P / E and EV / EBITDA multiples than Company A. When a more expensive buyer acquires a much less expensive seller, the deal will almost always be accretive. Company B's significantly higher tax rate also makes a difference -- Company A gets "free money" after the acquisition since it's only paying 25% in taxes rather than 40%. Takeaway #3: Using debt tends to produce more accretion than stock, but it also produces higher leverage ratios and lower coverage ratios -- so there is a trade-off between accretion / (dilution) and the credit stats following the deal.
https://wn.com/Merger_Model_Assessment_Centre_Case_Study
WACC, Cost of Equity, and Cost of Debt in a DCF
17:56

WACC, Cost of Equity, and Cost of Debt in a DCF

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  • Duration: 17:56
  • Updated: 23 Sep 2014
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In this WACC and Cost of Equity tutorial, you'll learn how changes to assumptions in a DCF impact variables like the Cost of Equity, Cost of Debt. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" You'll also learn about WACC (Weighted Average Cost of Capital) - and why it is not always so straightforward to answer these questions in interviews. Table of Contents: 2:22 Why Everything is Interrelated 4:22 Summary of Factors That Impact a DCF 6:37 Changes to Debt Percentages in the Capital Structure 11:38 The Risk-Free Rate, Equity Risk Premium, and Beta 12:49 The Tax Rate 14:55 Recap and Summary Why Do WACC, the Cost of Equity, and the Cost of Debt Matter? This is a VERY common interview question: "If a company goes from 10% debt to 30% debt, does its WACC increase or decrease?" "What if the Risk-Free Rate changes? How is everything else impacted?" "What if the company is bigger / smaller?" Plus, you need to use these concepts on the job all the time when valuing companies… these "costs" represent your opportunity cost from investing in a specific company, and you use them to evaluate that company's cash flows and determine how much the company is worth to you. EX: If you can get a 10% yield by investing in other, similar companies in this market, you'd evaluate this company's cash flows against that 10% "discount rate"… …and if this company's debt, tax rate, or overall size changes, you better know how the discount rate also changes! It could easily change the company's value to you, the investor. The Most Important Concept… Everything is interrelated - in other words, more debt will impact BOTH the equity AND the debt investors! Why? Because additional leverage makes the company riskier for everyone involved. The chance of bankruptcy is higher, so the "cost" even to the equity investors increases. AND: Other variables like the Risk-Free Rate will end up impacting everything, including Cost of Equity and Cost of Debt, because both of them are tied to overall interest rates on "safe" government bonds. Tricky: Some changes only make an impact when a company actually has debt (changes to the tax rate), and you can't always predict how the value derived from a DCF will change in response to this. Changes to the DCF Analysis and the Impact on Cost of Equity, Cost of Debt, WACC, and Implied Value: Smaller Company: Cost of Debt, Equity, and WACC are all higher. Bigger Company: Cost of Debt, Equity, and WACC are all lower. * Assuming the same capital structure percentages - if the capital structure is NOT the same, this could go either way. Emerging Market: Cost of Debt, Equity, and WACC are all higher. No Debt to Some Debt: Cost of Equity and Cost of Debt are higher. WACC is lower at first, but eventually higher. Some Debt to No Debt: Cost of Equity and Cost of Debt are lower. It's impossible to say how WACC changes because it depends on where you are in the "U-shaped curve" - if you're above the debt % that minimizes WACC, WACC will decrease. Otherwise, if you're at that minimum or below it, WACC will increase. Higher Risk-Free Rate: Cost of Equity, Debt, and WACC are all higher; they're all lower with a lower Risk-Free Rate. Higher Equity Risk Premium and Higher Beta: Cost of Equity is higher, and so is WACC; Cost of Debt doesn't change in a predictable way in response to these. When these are lower, Cost of Equity and WACC are both lower. Higher Tax Rate: Cost of Equity, Debt, and WACC are all lower; they're higher when the tax rate is lower. ** Assumes the company has debt - if it does not, taxes don't make an impact because there is no tax benefit to interest paid on debt.
https://wn.com/Wacc,_Cost_Of_Equity,_And_Cost_Of_Debt_In_A_Dcf
Unlevered Free Cash Flow Calculation in a Discounted Cash Flow Model
23:55

Unlevered Free Cash Flow Calculation in a Discounted Cash Flow Model

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  • Duration: 23:55
  • Updated: 03 Dec 2013
  • views: 79862
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Learn why Unlevered Free Cash Flow is important, how to calculate it, and the difference between Levered and Unlevered FCF. By http://breakingintowallstreet.com/ "Financial Modeling Training And Career Resources For Aspiring Investment Bankers" You'll see a real-world example of how to calculate it for Steel Dynamics, a steel manufacturer. Here's an outline of what we'll cover in this lesson... 1. Why is Unlevered Free Cash Flow AKA Free Cash Flow to Firm So Important? Measures cash flow generated by core business... On recurring, predictable basis... And it ignores capital structure - i.e. no net interest expense, debt repayments, etc. So it's arguably the best, most "neutral" view of how much cash a company really generates, resulting in use in the DCF. And it's easier to project than other metrics, such as Levered FCF - need cash/debt/interest/principal projections for that. Other metrics such as EPS or EBITDA/EBIT arguably better for comparison, but Unlevered FCF is best for "measure of core business value." 2. What is Unlevered Free Cash Flow? Try to replicate the Cash Flow Statement, but ignore / exclude certain items... anything non-recurring, non-core-business, or capital structure-related. Think about it this way rather than memorizing a long and complicated formula - understanding the concept always beats rote memorization. Basically you're taking the CFO section, removing net interest expense and tax impact, but keeping most other recurring items... Then, you exclude most of CFI except for CapEx, and exclude all of the CFF section. 3. How Do You Calculate Unlevered FCF? Instead of starting with normal Net Income as you would at the top of any Cash Flow Statement, you exclude net interest expense and recalculate based on Operating Income Times 1 Minus the Effective Tax Rate. Called NOPAT, or Net Operating Profit After Taxes. Then, make non-cash adjustments... D&A is most common, but can also have Stock-Based Compensation, Deferred Taxes, and so on. Then, Change in Working Capital - best to estimate each item individually to capture real cash flow impact, but can estimate as % of revenue as well. Basic idea is: When this business grows, do we need to put additional cash in to help it grow? Or does the growth itself actually generate cash? Most of the time, you are looking at Current Assets except for Cash and Current Liabilities except for Debt here... but it varies by company and you have to follow what they do. One common exception is Long-Term Deferred Revenue - that shows up under the Change in Working Capital section, even though it's not a Current Liability - because it IS related to the company's operations, and NOT its investing or financing activities. Then, subtract CapEx at the end because that represents re-investment in the company's business... and it's required for almost all companies. Better to estimate using PP&E schedule, but can approximate using % of revenue approach - generally not too far off. 4. What's Next After Calculating Unlevered FCF? Finish the rest of the model! Calculate Discount Rate, Cost of Equity, WACC, etc., and apply that to calculate NPV of cash flows... Calculate Terminal Value and discount that to its NPV as well. Better scenarios / assumptions for many of the #s here, such as revenue growth, margins, CapEx, etc. Calculate implied share price and sensitivities at the end. http://breakingintowallstreet.com/biws/video-7-dcf-tutorial/
https://wn.com/Unlevered_Free_Cash_Flow_Calculation_In_A_Discounted_Cash_Flow_Model